Technology shapes how we do things…stairs vs slides in buildings.
First: any additional introductions?
Notes and examples on “Introduction & Terminology” and “Conceptual Frameworks for Spatial Analysis.”
Introduction & Terminology
1. On applications
- Noise Mapping (Google) & Noise Mapping
- Air Quality Mapping (Google) & Air Quality Mapping
- Crime Mapping (Google) & Crime Mapping
- Health Mapping (Google) & Health Mapping
2. GIS, Spatial Analysis, and Software
3. Terminology & Definitions
Conceptual Frameworks for Spatial Analysis
The Geospatial Perspective: “a distinct perspective on the world, a unique lens through which to examine events, patterns, and processes that operate on or near the surface of our planet.”
The domain of geospatial analysis is the surface of the Earth, extending upwards in the analysis of topography and the atmosphere, and downwards in the analysis of groundwater and geology. In scale it extends from the most local, when archaeologists record the locations of pieces of pottery to the nearest centimetre or property boundaries are surveyed to the nearest millimetre, to the global, in the analysis of sea surface temperatures or global warming. In time it extends backwards from the present into the analysis of historical population migrations, the discovery of patterns in archaeological sites, or the detailed mapping of the movement of continents, and into the future in attempts to predict the tracks of hurricanes, the melting of the Greenland ice-cap, or the likely growth of urban areas.
Geospatial Analysis: what happens where, and makes use of geographic information that links features and phenomena on the Earth’s surface to their locations.
1. Basic “Primitives”
- place: complicated concept: Wikipedia
- attributes: “any recorded characteristic or property of a place” + measurement levels (qualitative, quantitative) + examples in ArcGIS
- objects: raster (images) & vector (points, lines, areas) below (from Making Maps):
- maps: defining maps & defining maps and more defining maps (PDF)
- multiple properties of place: attributes & classification
- fields: discrete (example) and continuous (example) phenomena
- networks: example & example
- density: examples (Google)
- detail: scale and generalization (from Making Maps):
2. Spatial Relationships
- co-location: poverty and riots or mammography and income or curious bugs that live with pocket gophers.
- distance and direction: garbage pickup (network analysis)
- spatial context: more or less the same as co-location
- neighborhood: neighborhood analysis vs defining a neighborhood (buffer) in GIS and viewsheds & Civil War viewsheds.
- spatial heterogeneity: “The results of any analysis over a limited area can be expected to change as that limited area is relocated, and to be different from the results that would be obtained for the surface of the Earth as a whole.” In essence, places are complicated and prediction from place to place difficult.
- spatial dependence: even though places are complicated: Tobler’s “First Law of Geography”: “All things are related, but nearby things are more related than distant things.” Example: Bike trails and property values or bike trail support based on how close they are to your house.
- spatial sampling: weather stations (points), weather map and terrain:
- spatial interpolation: filling in between known data
- smoothing and sharpening (generalization; see above)
3. Spatial Statistics
- Spatial probability: probability of landslides
- Uncertainty: variation in how certain we are about what we analyze and map with GIS: soils and water quality
- Statistical inference: defined and predicting radiation spread and inferring who you are for marketing
4. Spatial Data Infrastructure
- Interoperability: standards for spatial data (so everything works together): OGC
…All this jargon…
Next: Discuss and brainstorm ideas for course projects + working groups.
Assign: Mitchell ch. 1 (PDF) & refining ideas for the course project (including working groups, division of labor, etc.)
Mitchell Ch. 1 is useful as an overview of the GIS Analysis process. Akin to the research process in general. I will review this chapter for our next meeting.
Consider (and include in your blog posting for the reading):
- How the course project you have an interest in can be approached and organized using the GIS Analysis / research process: a way of structuring your work on the project
- How a project proposal (check schedule for due date) can be developed, including a plan and schedule for implementation, for your project. Work on this proposal will happen simultaneously with discussion of the readings and work on the software tutorial.
- Identify and questions or issues you have, terminology, concepts, examples, etc.